Copyright 2006 Lance KnowltonTechnically, Breathalyzer is a proprietary name for piece of testing equipment that determines blood alcohol concentration (BAC). There are two other types of devices that measure BAC, Intoxilyzer and Alcosensor, and they work differently than the Breathalyzer. This article will explain how each one works.All three devices require a person to exhale into them. That is because they all work on the same principle of testing, which is that alcohol shows up in the breath because it is absorbed into the bloodstream, not digested, where its chemical composition remains unchanged. As the blood flows through the lungs, the alcohol in it, which is volatile, evaporates into the lungs.There is a mathematical relationship between the amount of alcohol in the lungs and the amount of alcohol in the blood, and it can be manipulated to determine how much alcohol is in the blood without actually drawing any. All BAC testing equipment measures alcohol in the breath and uses this formula to calculate how much alcohol is in the blood. Accordingly, all the devices have a mouthpiece through which the test subject blows air and a sample chamber to hold the air. Beyond that, each device is different.The Breathalyzer detects alcohol by monitoring a chemical reaction that produces a color change. Besides the mouthpiece and sample chamber, it consists of two glass vials to contain the chemical reaction and a system of photocells connected to a meter. The air is bubbled through one vial containing a chemical mixture and into another vial. From that vial, the air is passed over the photocells so the meter can measure the color change and calculate the BAC.Alcosensor works by detecting the occurrence of a chemical reaction of alcohol in a fuel cell. The fuel cell has two platinum electrodes with a porous acid-electrolyte material layered between them. As the exhaled air flows past the electrodes, the platinum oxidizes any alcohol in the air to produce acetic acid, protons and electrons. The electrons flow through a wire connecting the first electrode and an electrical-current meter and the second electrode, which converts the other particles into water. The more alcohol oxidized, the greater the electrical current. A microprocessor measures the electrical current and calculates the BAC.The Intoxilyzer detects alcohol by infrared spectroscopy, which identifies molecules based on the way they absorb light. Each molecule absorbs light differently so alcohol molecules can be identified, counted and fed into the formula by computer. In the Intoxilyzer, a lamp generates a multiple wavelength infrared beam. The beam passes through the sample chamber and is focused by a lens onto a spinning filter wheel. The wheel contains band filters for the specific wavelength of alcohol. The light passing through the filter is detected by a photocell, where it is converted into an electrical pulse. Each pulse is relayed to a small computer which uses them to calculate the BAC.Each device is a sophisticated piece of testing equipment that must be calibrated before each use. Police officers are often trained on how to use and calibrate them, and DUI defense attorneys often get the results of the tests thrown out based on improper use or calibration.
According to a study presented recently at the European Society of Sexual Medicine, about one third of the 631 impotent participants who did not get the desired result after taking prescription medication such as Viagra for the first time gave up sex altogether. When the pills did not work the first time, 68 percent of men reported a loss of self-esteem, 32 percent felt depressed and 24 percent said they believed their condition could never be treated. One third simply did not return to their doctor to try an alternative treatment after a failed attempt, something the researchers said highlighted the fact many men delay or ignore treating their problem. Doctors say that this is unfortunate because there may be other treatment options that a patient can explore with their doctor's guidance. Patients can have the option to take either testosterone injections, other oral prescriptions, direct injections to the shaft, vacuum pumps, surgery, or in cases of psychological issues, counseling. Apart from those there are other, more unconventional treatments available, like herbal medicine, acupuncture, or experimental medicine. But what exactly is sexual impotence and how is it treated? Sexual impotence, or erectile dysfunction, is a condition characterized by a man's repeated inability to achieve or maintain an erection suitable for sexual intercourse. It commonly affects sexually mature males, usually due to underlying medical or psychological conditions. It can be caused by alcohol abuse, smoking, hormonal deficiency, or diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Psychological impotence can be caused by depression; feelings of anxiety or nervousness; stress from work, family or financial problems; unresolved issues between sexual partners; feelings of self-consciousness; and fearing a partner's reaction or rejection. One of the most popular treatments for "sexual impotence" are prescription oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil), Cialis (tadalafil), and Levitra (vardenafil) which are reliable, non-invasive and conveniently packaged in pill form. These drugs work by blocking the enzyme known as PDE5, which breaks down the chemicals that cause the erectile response. PDE5 inhibitors work by relaxing smooth muscle tissue in the blood vessels of the penis enabling their dilation and increasing blood supply to the corpus cavernosum, thus allowing the penile shaft to engorge and stay firm for a longer period of time. But contrary to popular opinion, these drugs do not directly create an erection in the penis, instead requiring sexual stimulation in order to work. However, it does increase the sensitivity of the male sexual organ. Although these medications have been hailed as a wonder drug by impotent men worldwide, PDE5 inhibitors are not without its complications. Numerous side effects such as headache, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, muscle pains, flushing of the face and body, runny nose, palpitations, and vision disturbances have been observed in some patients. However, there has been some evidence that these "side effects" diminish with prolonged use. It is also not recommended for patients taking nitrate-based drugs or alpha-blockers, because interaction between those prescriptions with PDE5 inhibitors can be fatal in some cases. As with any medication, PDE5 inhibitors have both positive and negative effects on the body. If you are suffering from sexual impotence and did not achieve an erection upon taking Viagra, Cialis, or Levitra for the first time, please consult your doctor. He can give you a different prescription medication that is more suited to your physiology. Don't just give up.
Head shaving done by females as well as males is seen and accepted much more these days. But history tells us it's nothing new. Both ancient male and female Egyptians used to shave their heads bald. Females always wore wigs. The modern female who is shaving her head often has fun doing so as well.Many people find bald heads very sexy. And if you didn't know - The entire scalp is an erogenous zone after shaving.If you're certain you're ready to go bald for the first time, here are techniques to help you:1) Start by cutting and then trimming your head hair to a short stubble before shaving.2) Next, take a hot shower. The steam will relax the skin and soften the hairs, which will make head shaving easier. Allow your skin and stubble to be wet for five to ten minutes.3) Then apply a rich lubricant and allow it to sit for a short while. You might want to use a little Tea Tree or mineral oil. This will help the razor glide more easily while shaving your head, which will help prevent cuts.4) ALWAYS use a fresh, new blade in your razor. And if it starts to feel like the razor is dragging, put in a new blade.Especially because people will be noticing your bald pate, the last thing you want is scraped, scabby skin. You want smooth and shiny skin after shaving.Obviously, you can't see the back of your head to shave it, so if you don't want to end up looking patchy ...5) Use a mirror. Also, regularly use your fingers to feel for areas you've missed.Note:The direction of "head shaving" doesn't matter because the hair grows in different directions. Whatever feels best to you.6) Try not to apply too much pressure or repeat strokes in the same area as you're shaving as both of these actions will certainly irritate the skin.After you're finished "shaving your head" -7) Thoroughly wash off any remaining lubricant with warm water.8) Then rinse with cold water. If you think you can handle it, rub your head with an ice cube. This will go a long way to close and calm the follicles, (the skin depressions from which hairs emerge), and generally tone your scalp skin.9) Pat the area dry, making sure not to rub.10) Many veteran head shavers believe applying witch hazel, after shave or another alcohol based product works well to further close the follicles and also act as an astringent to kill any germs and bacteria. But beware - Alcohol dries out the skin and dry skin is a major culprit in creating skin irritations.Tip:One way to kill bacteria, prevent infection and obtain moisture is to use the popular natural remedy Tea Tree Oil. It will deeply condition your scalp and provide your pate with a healthy sheen.There are many creams, lotions and oils specifically formulated to limit irritations and itching from shaving.Used regularly, these will soften the skin and hair follicles and even reduce the stiffness of the stubble when hairs start growing in between shaves.After you rub a goodly amount into your skin, go ahead and put on some more - Only this time don't rub it in but allow your skin to absorb it.These guidelines are based upon generations of people's experiences head shaving with a wet razor, so if you follow them, you should receive the most pleasing results.Depending on how much hair you want showing between shaves, you can shave your head every day, once a week, or only once a month.If you decide you do really enjoy having a bald head, do some research. There is an alternative to shaving your head with a wet razor that will remove your hair closely, cleanly and most importantly, safely.
Today in Kansas City, Missouri a woman is currently on trial for kidnapping resulting in death. At the center of this trial is a medical condition that the defense insists that Lisa Montgomery suffers from called pseudocyesis. They claim that she is mentally unbalanced, suffering from a variety of psychological problems stemming from her childhood, which was marked by sexual abuse and frequent moves. Pseudocyesis, also known as false pregnancy or pseudopregnancy, is a condition wherein a woman believes she is pregnant even though there is no actual fetus in her womb. Experts are unsure as to why women experiencing false pregnancy sometimes exhibit true physical signs of pregnancy. Women who have false pregnancies will claim to have, or actually exhibit true pregnancy symptoms such as amenorrhea (stoppage of menstruation), morning sickness, cravings, widening of the abdomen, enlargement of the breasts and quickening (sensation of a child moving in the womb). False pregnancy is a rare condition that is nonetheless a serious emotional and psychological condition in women. No single cause for the condition has been universally accepted by mental health professionals, although there are three popular theories. The first theory attributes the false pregnancy to emotional conflict, wherein an intense desire to become pregnant, or an intense fear of becoming pregnant, can create internal conflicts and changes in the endocrine system, which may explain some of the symptoms of false pregnancy. The second theory concerns wish-fulfillment, and it holds that if a women desires pregnancy badly enough she may interpret minor changes in her body as signs of pregnancy. The third leading theory is the depression theory, which maintains that chemical changes in the nervous system associated with some depressive disorders could trigger the symptoms of false pregnancy. Research has also linked false pregnancy to the pituitary gland (the center of hormone production during pregnancy) and an unusually high level of hormones. There is a possibility that the emotional and psychological shifts that lead a woman to falsely believe she is expecting is due to hormone imbalance sparked by stress and anxiety. According to police, Lisa Montgomery came to the victim's house under the pretext of purchasing one of the rat terrier puppies that Bobbie Jo Stinnett put up for sale online. The accused allegedly then killed expectant mother Bobbie Jo Stinnett by strangulation and carved the eight month baby from the latter's womb using a kitchen knife. She then proceeded to take the baby, asking her husband to pick them up at a local diner and drive them home and telling him that she had given birth at a nearby birthing center. The next day she tried to pass the baby off as her own, with the couple going out on the town, displaying the child to friends and acquaintances. Later that day, Lisa Montgomery was arrested following a massive manhunt for the suspect after the mutilated body of Bobbie Jo Stinnett was found in the kitchen of her home by her mother. Police tracked down Lisa Montgomery and the baby the next day through e-mails Montgomery had sent Stinnett about buying a dog. A search of her car yielded several pieces of evidence including a bloody rope used to strangle Stinnett and a knife used in removing the baby from her womb. The rope and knife are among more than 100 pieces of physical evidence prosecutors will present at Montgomery's trial along with the testimonies of over 100 possible witnesses. Authorities believe that Lisa Montgomery wanted a baby so badly that she was willing to kill to get one. Experts for the defense say that her tendency to escape into fantasy stemmed from her chaotic childhood, and that she will do anything to protect this fantasy world from collapsing. So despite the fact that she had consented to undergo a tubal ligation in 1990, she may choose not to acknowledge the fact that she can no longer carry a child, especially since she was pressured into the surgery by her mother and then-husband Carl Bowman. She insisted that she was pregnant at least five times since the surgery, refusing to listen to family members who constantly reminded her that it was not possible. This is apparently common in those suffering from pseudocyesis or false pregnancy, and doctors are now disputing their claims using technology such as ultrasound machines or other imaging techniques. Counseling may also be helpful for women who have this condition, because false pregnancy is often indicative of other psychological problems. In the end, whether or not Lisa Montgomery is suffering from false pregnancy, the saddest part about this case is that a little girl is forced to grow up without her mother.
Pregnant women have special dietary needs, and this means improving the quality of their diet. They need to follow a healthy diet not only for their body, but more importantly for the development of their unborn child. During pregnancy women should avoid or reduce the intake of certain items.